CNC Machining · 2021年5月8日 0

The status quo of non-standard equipment and key points of its design

Due to the huge gap between my country’s non-standard equipment design and manufacturing level and the world’s large enterprises, it is very necessary to study the update of non-standard equipment technology. Through statistical data, analyze the dynamics and development of non-standard equipment design and manufacturing, and determine the purpose and content of this article. Through the summary of the non-standard equipment design process and structural plan, it is pointed out that in the process of non-standard equipment design, the mechanical designer should consciously organize the establishment of a “standard library”, continue to enrich the “standard library”, and strengthen various non-standard equipment companies themselves Core competitiveness.

1. Current status of design and manufacturing of non-standard equipment
1.1 Design and production characteristics of non-standard equipment
Non-standard equipment occupies an important position in the manufacturing industry. Non-standard equipment is generally single-piece production, there is no prototype design, and very few mass production. Most of the non-standard equipment is customized according to the actual production situation of the enterprise, which will cause the non-standard equipment to only adapt to the corresponding enterprise, but not to adapt. Other companies. It often takes a long time for non-standard equipment to design plans, determine plans by both parties, sign contracts, production design, and parts processing. Moreover, because non-standard equipment is not mass production, for small and medium-sized non-standard manufacturing enterprises, it takes longer to sign orders. For a long time, the management costs incurred during this period will burden the enterprise. Non-standard equipment manufacturers have relatively high requirements for personnel and equipment when they are put into production. An efficient design, development, assembly and commissioning team can greatly reduce the design to delivery cycle. On the contrary, an inefficient team even composed of beginners due to experience Lack, often prolonging the equipment cycle and even leading to project failure and unable to recover the payment. Non-standard equipment manufacturers lack new inventions. At present, the professional knowledge of many non-standard designers stays at the inherent level and is less innovative. The movement mechanism has evolved from pure mechanical composition to mechanical, electrical, and hydraulic interactions. The composition of equipment has become more and more complex. The simpler and convenient the combination also killed the inspiration and creativity of many designers.

1.2 The standard system for non-standard equipment design is not clear
Generally speaking, the design of non-standard equipment does not have a fixed standard. Different equipment makes users have different requirements on the equipment. This requires the designer to master relevant standards such as process, testing, environment, safety, etc., and the design is at the forefront To ensure the correctness of the design, the required standards can be established. Some large-scale non-standard equipment manufacturers will formulate their own standards, including mechanism design guidelines, parts processing guidelines, parts selection guidelines, electrical guidelines, and even standard mechanical mechanisms or modules corresponding to different processing technologies. Benefit from these standards The cycle of non-standard equipment from R&D to delivery is much shorter than that of companies without relevant standards, which is conducive to the further development of the company. However, these standards are often limited to the internal use of the company because of the protection of their own interests or intellectual property considerations. Internal promotion, and the corresponding standards of each enterprise are not the same, which restricts the expansion and development of non-standard industries. Small and medium-sized non-standard enterprises are mostly in the stage of one designer and one style, and there is no unified design concept. In addition, the flow of personnel in the industry Soon, small and medium-sized non-standard enterprises will basically not form a standard system, which has caused the industry to gradually polarize.

1.3 The results and benefits of non-standard equipment design cannot be guaranteed
The effect of the design and manufacture of non-standard equipment refers to the comprehensive evaluation of the technical performance, productivity and reliability of the non-standard equipment in actual use. Benefit refers to the economic value of non-standard equipment as a commodity and the economic benefits obtained from using non-standard equipment. The early non-standard designers in China were basically based on design assignments. Although the design task book only emphasizes technical performance indicators, manufacturing costs, benefits and other requirements are usually not mentioned. Therefore, whether to adopt some advanced technologies or the advancement of technical indicators is an important criterion for evaluating non-standard equipment. However, whether the equipment conforms to actual production, whether it achieves its own actual effect, and whether it is accepted by the market is often ignored. In this case, some non-standard designers gradually formed a blind pursuit of advanced technology, ignoring the effects and benefits of the concept. Under the current market economy conditions, it is more important to focus on the effects and benefits of design than one-sided pursuit of advanced technologies such as automation and electronics.

2. Optimization and innovation of non-standard equipment design and manufacturing
2.1 Improve the design reliability of non-standard equipment
When designing, it is necessary to carefully analyze and study the design plan of non-standard equipment, choose a plan with stable production performance, high production efficiency, convenient maintenance, and high safety factor. When choosing standard parts of non-standard equipment, choose finished parts as much as possible, so that both It can reduce related management costs, production costs and reduce the consumption of raw materials. The finished parts of the parts are generally practiced and tested repeatedly before entering the market. Compared with the non-standard parts that have been designed and manufactured only once, they have higher reliability. In the initial design of non-standard parts, there will be more or less defects in the design. These defects are often due to economic and time constraints and are not improved in time. The equipment will reduce its defects when working with these defective non-standard parts. reliability. When designing moving parts, try to choose reliable and mature ones. Collect more product samples from large companies, which can be used as design reference; when an important part of the design involves the design of innovative institutions, sufficient drawing demonstrations should be carried out first, and small batches of prototypes can be manufactured for verification if necessary to verify the actual design effect.

2.2 Enhance the design and manufacturing efficiency of non-standard equipment
In the manufacturing process of non-standard equipment, we often encounter some technical or management problems. The business department needs to adopt some effective strategies based on the actual situation. The design department must continuously improve its design level, grasp the general design direction, and avoid design mistakes. In order to remain invincible in the fierce market competition. Design considerations should ensure the smooth development of the design of non-standard equipment, make the design work in accordance with strict design procedures, continuously improve the technical design and construction drawings of non-standard equipment, and carefully review the symbols, names, and formats in the design to ensure that the non-standard equipment The equipment meets the corresponding national standards. Design and processing are closely related, and the processing process must be fully considered when designing. This helps simplify the operation and quality assurance in the manufacturing process, and can also improve efficiency and reduce costs. Designers and executives should communicate in advance to make them aware of the new Technical difficulties such as product structure, performance, and assembly technology.

2.3 Improve the inspection standards of non-standard equipment finished products
After the design has passed the review, the party can carry out the design work, and strengthen the cooperation between the design teams by different design teams designing different parts. Therefore, the design team first needs to design selection and combination work, and then complete the design, including the overall design , The main parameters of the host and production line, the main supporting equipment, the main components and parameters of the electromechanical gas, and the main control methods. The designer carries out the design work based on the above-mentioned data and formulates the internal production standards of the enterprise. In the overall design stage, the design team can carry out parts design work. The enterprise internally determines the business parts, parts standards, design manual standards and business common design standards in tolerance, accuracy and material selection. At this stage, it is necessary to design component drawings , Parts diagram, main circuit diagram, control circuit diagram, parts list, standardized list, mechanics and thermodynamic calculations, etc., used as the basis for later part selection. According to these use appropriate power structure, gearbox, control unit and hydraulic unit, lubrication unit, etc., after the above equipment and parts are determined, the independent manufacturing test of the equipment is carried out.

3. Conclusion
At present, some parts of China are in the critical period of industrial structure upgrading. Facing opportunities and challenges, reducing China’s industrial project construction investment is one of the important ways for Chinese industrial enterprises to improve economic efficiency and enhance competitiveness. This poses a great challenge to all kinds of non-standard equipment companies. On the one hand, the company needs to have its own core competitiveness, seize this historical opportunity, and strive to establish its own core technology system and value orientation, and continue to attract foreign investment into the equipment manufacturing industry. On the basis of continuous innovation, the design concept and technology form its own characteristics and market competitiveness; on the other hand, it seizes the cost reduction of foreign-invested enterprises and the domestic production data of students, including the real form of fixed assets-production equipment. Strengthening the design and creation of non-standard equipment and reducing investment in construction projects requires the joint efforts of all departments.